Friday, September 22, 2017

Hydrogen Bomb

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               The mushroom smokes and heat energy produced by Tsar Hydrogen-bomb on Novaya Zemlya Island,30 October 1961.                               

What is H-bomb?

An H bomb is colloquial for thermonuclear bomb, a bomb that uses a fusion reaction in heavy hydrogen and lithium to produce a lot of neutrons to unleashed the most powerful energy like a center of the sun. There are two types of nuclear weapons: Mainly (1). Atomic bombs ( A-bombs) which is an ordinary nuclear device commonly known by everyone that produces its explosive energy purely through nuclear fission reaction. (2) and second is an extraordinary Hydrogen bomb (H-bombs), Hydrogen bombs were part of a general effort to develop ever more powerful second generation nuclear weapons, and indeed still the most powerful weapon in arsenal ever built by humankind which produces powerful energy plasma through hydrogen nuclear fusion reactions. H-bomb is over thousand times more powerful than ordinary A-bombs. The thermonuclear weapon use a stand-by nuclear fusion stages that consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which then bombarded by another suppressing energy released from a primary detonation of a fission bomb within another bomb,to compress the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing extreme force outblast. Some advanced designs use fast neutrons which produced in a second stage to ignite a third fission or fusion stage. 

Remember that most of its energy even in an H bomb initially comes from the fission the sharp heat impulse, that restart the fusion reaction process to give a destructive power. Thermonuclear weapons are quantitatively different because they are pack with a highly concentration punch into such a small mass. Imagine, you can get 250 kilotons out of 110 kg, which will becomes fearful hundred times deadly force per weight as the bomb that hit Nagasaki in 9 August,1945. Even a little device like cruise missile if packed with an thermonuclear fusion can be deadly 10 times more than Fat Man. The main science behind this technology is a "born-secret", people are forbidden from knowing the physics of developing the nuclear device, if you happened to know by natural default you're then restricted from building nuclear weapon. One of the reasons why International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) exists as important UN's organ is to enforce Non ProliferationTreaty which prevent countries from developing,possessing or transferring nuclear materials for military purposes. 


The thermonuclear provides a considerably chance for a small army to render a destruction with magnitude force in brief moment. In modern nuclear warfare the victory is not judged by the merit of how good at deploying thousands human soldiers on the battleground or how smart at military techs. A single blast of one handful tonic nuke from quasi-militia can cause unrepentable annihilation to an entire warring divisions of 1 million troops, which even possess most sophisticated weapons.....The end result of nuclear warfare is not determined by the number or artillery pieces, but by the time and speed, how fast enough in laying a finger on detonating a nuclear cord.


Any possible nuclear war on large scale could end human civilization on earth: The thermonuclear provides a considerably chance for anyone who posses it to render a destruction with magnitude force in brief moment.  In modern nuclear warfare the victory is not judged by the merit of how good at deploying thousands human soldiers on the battleground or how smart at military techs. "A single blast of one handful tonic nuke from quasi-militia for instance can cause unrepentable annihilation to warring divisions of 1 million troops, which even possess most sophisticated weapons".....a small army with less military art if it possessed nuclear warheads like North Korea can still win glorious victory over a superpower, because nuclear warfare is not determined by the number, but base on the speediness, how fast enough in laying a finger on detonating cord or a button. The big concern for everyone is that we are facing uncertainty future, judging to the growing enmity "Russophobia",Sinophobia and North Korea hysteria that unfolding verse the western nations. Any possible single mistake that could be done by US could blaze the entire world into a ball of fire.

                           



H-bomb Test in Pacific island of Bikini Atoll on 01 March 1956, that resulted in complete evacuation 
             


US H-Bomb Test

On 01 March 1954, American scientists conducted a hydrogen bomb test at Bikini Atoll, which codenamed "Castle Bravo", The bomb was dropped from an American B52 jet bomber named the Barbara Grace, flying at around 45,000ft above Namu Island in the Bikini Atoll in the Pacific ocean, it was set off at 5.51 a.m. local time at an altitude of 10,000ft to minimize the radioactive fallout, when the bomb initially set off and hit the part of shallow water, it released the vast heat,concussive shock waves and radioactive fallout afterward. All people staying on the island were evacuated immediately included inhabitants at nearby two islands like Rongelap and Utrik. Some few months later the residents dare to return to their homes in Utrik on their own peril of radiation fallout, while other inhabitants of Rongelap did not return until 1957 due to environmental implications, and later all were forced to leave again, due to radioactive embed in the area. However, due to amount pressure of such environmental catastrophe the U.S government compensate the residents of the islands affected. The denoted thermonuclear test conducted by Americans was a contestation toward the USSR, that previously tested successfully their H-Bomb in September of 1949 earlier, prompting the United States to increase efforts to develop an even greater thermonuclear weapon to surpass the capacity of the Soviets. The creation and detonation of the first hydrogen bomb on the Bikini island allowed the United States momentarily one step ahead of the Soviets during that time of arms race. Overall there were 43 nuclear tests, conducted by US from 1948 to 1960s. 

Tsar Bomba the most powerful explosion test on 30 October 1961 on Arctic island of  Novaya Zemlya Island.


USSR H-bomb Test

The successful testing of RDS-1 in August of 1949 inspired the Soviets to institute a full-scale research on a high-priority program to develop the hydrogen bomb.The Tsar Bomba was a hydrogen bomb test by the Soviets, and continues to stand as the single most powerful nuclear weapon ever built and detonated in history, that had a staggering yield of 50 megatons. By comparison, the primitive fission bomb dropped in 04 August,1945 on Hiroshima had a 15 kiloton yield. The test was a response to Cold War arm-race and hostility to American H-bomb that was tested on Bikini island. Russian military complex has inherited large amounts of these grades from the fall of Soviet Socialist Union (U.S.S.R) and they have improved some of them to an unimaginable degree to deliver lethal effect more 3300 times as compared to those destructive effects of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The Tsar Bomb alone can reduce a country to a mere "crate of desert in a minute" and kills thousand millions just instantly in a second. Mr. Klaus Fuchs a person who revealed many classified and top secrets regarding the American hydrogen bomb program to the Soviets throughout the late 1940s. In fact the Soviets also knew that the hydrogen bomb is a game changer and would have to be developed in order to counter the perceived "American threat" abroad. The effort to develop a thermonuclear weapon was led by Soviet physicist Andrei Sakharov, widely considered the "Father of the Soviet H-Bomb." Sakharov was the author of several key revolutionary ideas about the designs of H-bomb that contributed to the Soviets' thermonuclear debut and his research opened a door for nowadays technical development of H-bombs, specifically the North Korean scientists who inherited valuable documents from the communist Chinese Red-Army detailing on Atomic Energy and the theory of hydrogen bomb.  

Miniaturizing

Miniaturizing is the process of fitting a bomb device on ICBM or on any other warhead like rockets for the delivery purposes and this involves some delicate balance between making the device smaller and precisely compatibility so that you may not sacrificing eventual payload. This process required a lot of technical knowledge,experiences and several testing to ensure the accuracy of warhead is still effective in producing a devastating annihilation at desired target. 



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Characteristics: The destructive force of a nuclear explosion is measured in thousands of tonnes (TNT). The nuclear bomb can be deployed on land, at sea and in the air to create what called high altitude explosion which still dangerous. 10 g of nuclear bomb is enough to vaporize an average city and destroy complete everything within 30 km radius, and send a lethal concussive wave shocks up to 65 km and creates radioactive mushroom cloud in the air that reach 160 km above in the sky. A nuclear bomb can generates seismic energy that generate artificial Earth tremor-like at about 200 km distance from the main epicentre of actual impact, especially in the case of Russian Tsar bomba which was the last powerful nuclear bomb ever detonated in human history at Novaya Zemlya, Arctic Ocean on 30 October 1961.The Americans too they did test their thermonuclear bomb at Bikini island, in Pacific ocean of which people believed it was the last powerful test performed by two nations.

Effects

At Sea: The nuclear bomb's blast if it detonate at sea can create horrific tidal waves of unstoppable tsunami-like waves, and this energetic waves can shank anything that floating on the body of water like warship carriers,destroyers,boats and etc. It can also percolate a holes and damage materials,vessels living below water surface like submarines.


In Air: The mushroom radioactive cloud and plasma effect can spirit-up aircraft, warplanes and anything that hovering at the latitude of 100 km proximity in case its a powerful nuclear blast. 


On land: As additional to the annihilation of this kind of weapon, the nuclear bomb poses a constant threat of nuclear radioactive contamination that will stay rife in affected areas for ever, if no proper reclame has done. Let, talk about 15 TNT bomb dropped on Hiroshima in 1945 that destroyed over 13 square kilometres of the Japanese industrial city and instantly killed 75,000 people who were lived within the radius of blast a minute, plus the 92 per cent of the city’s structures was wholly reduced to rubbles. And more millions people died as consequence of radioactive fall-out. 


Testing Methods 


There are three modes of nuclear detonations: (A) Underwater ;(B) Underground and (C) Atmospheric. But, underground nuclear test is popular, because it limits undesirable radioactive fallout. There have been at least 2,056 nuclear test explosions in the entire world so far included the latest Pyongyang tests conducted 03 September 2017. Current nuclear weapons are much more powerful than those dropped on Japan or the Tsar bomb. North Korea has revealed that they did test hydrogen bomb which is more powerful 1000 times than those ever produced before. According to experts just 50 kg of nuclear warhead could possibly kills 300 millions and make entire continent uninhabitable. Apart from the 9 nuclear weapon-armed nations that we know, there are 26 ‘umbrella states’ who have accepted a nuclear treaty to posses the nuclear technology have the technical know-how to produce weapons-grade plutonium, however their programs is simple for civil purposes like nuclear reactor for generating electricity.

Outputs

Heat: About third precedent of energy released by hydrogen bomb is heat, light, and some plasma charge effects. The first and most immediate result is either temporary or permanent is a flash of blindness to anyone who looking at or in the general direction of the blast without proper eye protection. The energy release also creates enormous temperatures, especially in the case of a powerful hydrogen bomb. A hydrogen bomb can create temperatures in the vicinity to a range about 6,300 times more hotter than the surface of the sun. This routinely vaporizes much of whatever matter is immediately around "ground zero" (the center of the explosion), where the bomb produces a mammoth fireball.

Blast: When a normal nuclear weapon other than a neutron bomb is detonated, about half of its energy is expressed in the form of the concussive blast and vibrating waves. All explosions cause this effect because the heat released creates an overpressure, or a wave of greatly increased atmospheric pressure generated by the explosion and that radiates out from it. The difference between a hydrogen bomb and another type of explosion, even a nuclear explosion, is the substantially greater blast energy. An interesting side note to nuclear blasts, however, is that they are dependent upon an atmosphere to propagate them. Contrary to what a lot of bad science fiction might have us or believe, the vacuum of space would eliminate this concussive blast, leaving on the remaining two nuclear effects.

Radiation: About 15 percent of a hydrogen bomb's energy takes the form of radiation which consists of ionizing radiation, or highly charged particles such as ultraviolet,X-rays and gamma rays that are emitted as part of the fission and fusion chain reactions in the hydrogen bomb. The remainder takes the form of nuclear fallout. Fallout is the spread of radioactive materials (waste byproducts and unspent fuel from the bomb) through the atmosphere as a result of the explosion. These substances continue to emit dangerous radioactivity as a result of their own radioactive decay which will remain on the affected place for centuries if not decontaminated.

Author Note

During apartheid, the South African regime has secretly managed to developed a nuclear weapon, although the deployment and commissioning of such a weapon in military utilities was anticipated by UN-resolution subsequently 435 that demand total freedom for Namibia, and then South Africa. The nuclear technology was then dismantled immediately by the regime for fearing that such powerful weapon might be fall in the hands of black nationalists, which they will use it as political deterrence.There are 24 Uranium-rich nations in the world that producing the "forbidden holy grail" used in H-bombs.The biggest producers are Canada, Australia, Niger, Russia, South Africa,US and Namibia which is also among the top-5.

 



The Science and Tech weblog, is about science,technologies,esoterics and international interest but since we facing eminent threat of possible nuclear warfare, then this information is worth for sharing!



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